NATIVE RANGE: North America
FIRST FINDING IN SLOVENIA: not yet found in Slovenia
PATHWAYS: transported with seeds, saplings, wood and bark. Spores are secondary spreading with wind and insects.
POSSIBLE TO FIND: year-round
DESCRIPTION: The fungus F. circinatum infects the bark of pine trees and causes dieback, resin exudates and canker wounds. The woody tissue beneath the canker is soaked with resin and is coloured yellow. In saplings, the lower part of the stem is thickened and exudes excessive resin while beneath the bark, the wood is dark brown and soaked with resin. In older trees, it may also cause dieback of the tips of affected branches. Needles wilt and initially colour light green, then reddish-brown and are eventually shed. Trees are infected by spores, which are carried by wind and insects. The fungus can only enter trees through wounds.
HOST PLANTS: All species of pines (Pinus spp.), sometimes also in other conifers.
STATUS: Present in Spain and Portugal, where it is more common in warm, moist areas.
SIMILAR SPECIES: Sphaeropsis shoot-killing of pine (Diplodia pinea), Brunchorstia dieback of conifers (Gremmeniella abietina), shoot shedding of pine (Cenangium ferruginosum), Atropellis canker (Atropellis spp.) and pine-shoot beetles (Tomicus spp.).